Design and Design Thinking in Advancing Humanities and Social Sciences in the 21st Century
Since the Industrial Revolution (IR), science and technology have advanced at an ever-accelerating rate. In mere 250 years since IR, advances in science and technology have changed nearly all aspects of humanity. Before IR, people and animals were used as the primary source of power and energy. After IR, steam engines and other power sources replaced human and animal power, which ultimately changed the economic and political structure of many nations and the world. Now, the world is undergoing socio-economic transformation due to information technology and will soon enter the age of biological revolution. These and other advances in science and technology are likely to accelerate, creating both opportunities and some unanticipated risks to humanity. To ascertain that the technological changes result in positive outcomes for humanity and society, more research in humanities and social sciences is needed so as to complement the advances being made in natural science and technology. The question raised in this presentation is: “Can AxiomaticDesign and design thinkingbe applied in the fields of humanities and social sciences so as to create imaginative societal solutions in the technology era?” Design examples are given that show how AD can be applied in non-technical fields.
Enhancing Prosthetic Musculotendinous Proprioception utilizing Multidisciplinary Artificially Intelligent Learning Approach
Historically, research shows analysis, characterization, and classification of complex heterogeneous non-linear systems and interactions have been difficult to accurately understand and effectively model. Advanced Biophysical and Biomechanical prosthesis research shows that development of patient specific physiologically meaningful musculotendinous proprioception would generate a marked impact on reflex control, fine volitional motor control, and overall user experience. Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence are benefitting disciplines struggling with learning from rapid increasing data volume, velocity, and complexity. Research shows complexity reducing axiomatic design benefitting medical devices, but surprisingly not prosthetics. Therefore, we propose a multidisciplinary approach to potentially enhance prosthetic proprioception by combining AI adaptive learning, axiomatic design complexity reduction techniques applied to real-time classification of high volume prosthetic usage characteristics.
Application of axiomatic design to the design of automobile parts
Axiomatic design is applied to the practical design of automobile parts such as the suspension system and cooling system. The original axiomatic design theory without modification is directly utilized to analyze the current systems. Functional requirements and design parameters are defined, and design matrices are established. The decomposition process is employed to find the hierarchy of the design process. Some coupled aspects are found. Due to the sponsor’s request, trial to find a new design is not performed. Instead, the coupled process is reported to the practitioners so that they could be alert to the coupled parts. The order of the design process is defined for the design of the automobile parts. After the design hierarchy is made, the design structure matrix (DSM) method is applied to the modular design of the parts. The experience of the application is discussed.
Hubcap and ignition switch designs – case studies in Independence Axiom
Independence Axiom offers designers a guide to good design. It declares that the design parameters (DPs) conceived for a good design must maintain the independence of the design functional requirements (FRs). Specifically, by relating FRs to DPs through a design matrix [DM] with elements ∂FRi/∂DPj, Independence Axiom declares that only designs with diagonal or triangular design matrix can maintain the functional independence of FRs; and that they should be the only acceptable ones.
Starting with the formal definition of functional independence, we derive the criterion for functional independence of FRs as the Jacobian determinant | J | ≠ 0; where the Jacobian matrix [ J ] is shown to be identically equal to [DM]. We further show that if and only if | J | ≠ 0 can the design FRs achieve their target values. Thus the criterion | J | ≠ 0 substantiates the declaration of Independence Axiom since determinant of a diagonal or triangular design matrix is not equal to zero. It serves as the mathematical basis for teaching and implementing Independence Axiom in design.
Two case studies are presented to illustrate the implementation of Independence Axiom via the Jacobian determinant | J |.
Importance of Axiomatic Design Principles in Metrics Management and Analytics Engineering Operations
As we know it is important to define functional requirements (“whats”) and corresponding design parameters (“hows”) in a systematic and a scientific fashion to avoid complexities at the later stage of a design activity. Equally important is identifying suitable metrics for measuring FRs and DPs. The accuracy of these metrics is so important to make sure that desired outcome are achieved. In this presentation, we will discuss about importance of managing metrics and how decomposition principle is helpful in managing and evaluating metrics. The proposed metrics management approach helps evaluate performance levels of processes, systems and models, including artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches. We will also discuss about the quality index that will be useful in measuring performance levels and its relation to information axiom.